What is pilocarpine used to treat?
Pilocarpine tablets are used to treat dryness of the mouth and throat caused by a decrease in the amount of saliva that may occur after radiation treatment for cancer of the head and neck or in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. This medicine may help you speak without having to sip liquids.
What does pilocarpine do to the eye?
Ophthalmic pilocarpine is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision. Pilocarpine is in a class of medications called miotics. It works by allowing excess fluid to drain from the eye.
When should I take pilocarpine gel?
Pilocarpine works by decreasing the amount of fluid within the eye. HOW TO USE: This medication is usually used once daily at bedtime or as directed by your doctor. To apply eye gel, wash your hands first.
How do you administer pilocarpine eye gel?
Squeeze a thin strip of gel into this space. A 1½-cm (approximately ½-inch) strip of gel is usually enough, unless you have been told by your doctor to use a different amount. Let go of the eyelid and gently close the eyes. Keep the eyes closed for 1 or 2 minutes to allow the medicine to be absorbed by the eye.
How quickly does pilocarpine work?
Although the data show that pilocarpine-induced stimulation of salivary flow occurred within 30 minutes of ingestion of the first dose and was maintained through week 12, the onset of subjective benefit for various symptoms took 6 to 12 weeks.
How long does it take pilocarpine to work?
You may start to feel some benefit in 1 to 2 weeks. However, it may take up to 3 months to feel the full benefit. Tell your doctor if your condition lasts or gets worse.
Can pilocarpine improve vision?
Ophthalmologists have long known that miotics can improve near vision by contracting the iris sphincter, which reduces the pupil size and creates a pinhole camera effect. Some drugs, including pilocarpine, may also increase accommodation through mild contraction of the ciliary muscle.
How long do the effects of pilocarpine last?
Onset of miosis after topical administration of a 1% solution of pilocarpine hydrochloride or nitrate to the conjunctival sac occurs within 10-30 minutes, with maximal effect within 30 minutes. Miosis usually persists for 4-8 hours, rarely, up to 20 hours.
Can you use pilocarpine eye drops long term?
Regular monitoring of visual fields and intra-ocular pressure should be carried out in patients on long term therapy with pilocarpine for chronic simple glaucoma. If systemic absorption occurs, pilocarpine may enhance the effects of alcohol and anticholinesterases and diminish the effects of anticholinergics.
Is pilocarpine used for glaucoma?
Pilocarpine is used to treat glaucoma and other eye conditions. Vuity™ eye drops are used to treat presbyopia (age-related eye or vision problem).
Does pilocarpine induce epileptiform activity in hippocampus?
In in vitro studies on hippocampal slices, direct application of micromolar (10 μM) concentrations of pilocarpine was reported to induce epileptiform activity. However, ictal epileptiform discharges were observed only when the potassium concentration was enhanced to 7.5 mM or after prolonged perfusion of pilocarpine.
What is the mechanism of action of pilocarpine?
Pilocarpine directly stimulates cholinergic receptors, acting on a subtype of muscarinic receptor (M 3) found on the iris sphincter muscle, causing the muscle to contract and produce miosis. 4 This effect is important in the short-term management of some angle-closure glaucomas.
Does pilocarpine affect anterior chamber volume and anterior chamber depth?
The anterior chamber volume and the anterior chamber depth decreased significantly when patients were on pilocarpine. In open-angle glaucoma, pilocarpine contracts the ciliary muscle, increasing the outflow of aqueous humor, which reduces intraocular pressure.
How long does it take for pilocarpine to work for seizures?
Typically, seizures initiated 6–34 min after pilocarpine was injected (average of 13 ± 7 min) and manifested both clinically and electrographically. Following the first seizure, recurrent spontaneous seizures followed, in which spontaneous transitions occurred between the interictal and ictal states.