## What are the three ways to measure income inequality?

Economists use various metrics for measuring income inequality. Here, the most commonly used measures—the Lorenz curve, the Gini coefficient, decile ratios, the Palma ratio, and the Theil index—are discussed in relation to their benefits and limitations.

What are measures of inequality?

An inequality measure is often a function that ascribes a value to a specific distribution of income in a way that allows direct and objective comparisons across different distributions. To do this, inequality measures should have certain properties and behave in a certain way given certain events.

How do you interpret Palma ratio?

The Palma Ratio When the bottom 40% of a population lose half their income, and the richest 10% get dibs, a sensible measure of income inequality should rise more than incrementally.

### What does Theil index measure?

The Theil index is a statistic used to measure economic inequality. The Theil index measures an entropic “distance” the population is away from the “ideal” egalitarian state of everyone having the same income.

What are the two most common metrics to measure inequality?

Common income inequality metrics. Among the most common metrics used to measure inequality are the Gini index (also known as Gini coefficient), the Theil index, and the Hoover index.

What are the four criteria for inequality measurement?

It turns out that an inequality measure is consistent with the Lorenz criterion if and only if it satisfies all of the four principles that we stated above: the anonymity, population, relative income and Dalton principles.

#### What does a high Palma ratio mean?

So, we’ve given this idea a name – ‘the Palma’ (brilliant eh?) or the Palma Ratio. It’s defined as the ratio of the richest 10% of the population’s share of gross national income (GNI), divided by the poorest 40% of the population’s share.

What is a high Palma ratio?

The Palma ratio is the share of all income received by the 10% people with highest disposable income divided by the share of all income received by the 40% people with the lowest disposable income. More.

What is Theil inequality coefficient?

Thiel’s inequality coefficient, also known as Thiel’s U, provides a measure of how well a time series of estimated values compares to a corresponding time series of observed values. The statistic measures the degree to which one time series ({Xi}, i = 1,2,3.n) differs from another ({Yi}, i = 1, 2, 3.n).

## What does negative Theil index mean?

The Theil index measures an entropic “distance” the population is away from the egalitarian state of everyone having the same income. The numerical result is in terms of negative entropy so that a higher number indicates more order that is further away from the complete equality.

How a country can measure its income inequality?

One common way of measuring income inequality is to rank all households by income, from lowest to highest, and then to divide all households into five groups with equal numbers of people, known as quintiles. This calculation allows for measuring the distribution of income among the five groups compared to the total.

What is the best way to measure inequality?

A simple but effective way to examine income inequality is to calculate decile ratios. The calculation is done by taking, for example, the income earned by the top 10% of households and dividing that by the income earned by the poorest 10% of households.

### What do we know about income inequality?

Income inequality measures such as the generalised entropy index and the Atkinson index offer the ability to examine the effects of inequalities in different areas of the income spectrum, enabling more meaningful quantitative assessments of qualitatively different inequalities.

Is there a consensus on the health effects of inequality?

This is a particularly relevant task, given the rapid development of the literature on the health effects of income inequality.1,2,3,4,5More than 115 empirical tests of the income inequality hypothesis have been published, yet a consensus has not emerged.

How can we operationalise income inequality in public health?

The Gini coefficient has been the most popular method for operationalising income inequality in the public health literature. However, a number of alternative methods exist, and they offer researchers the means to develop a more nuanced understanding of the distribution of income.