Helpful guidelines

What are the functions of gangliosides?

What are the functions of gangliosides?

Gangliosides function as antigens or receptors by recognizing specific molecules (lectins), including bacterial toxins, at the cell surface and by modulating the charge density at the membrane surface (see the section on Gangliosides and Disease below).

What is similar and what is different in structure of cerebrosides globosides and gangliosides?

Cerebrosides are the simplest glycosphingolipids with a single sugar linked to ceramide. Ganglioside are complex glycosphingolipids with an oligosaccharide fragment linked to ceramide. Gangliosides contain a ceramide, a number of sugar groups, and sialic acid.

What is ganglioside made of?

A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.

How do glycosphingolipids determine blood groups?

Glycosphingolipids are the biological recognition sites in determining human A, B, and O blood groups. They are composed of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine, a long-chain fatty acid, and an oligosaccharide polar head group that is joined by a glyosidic linkage.

What are the physiological and medical significance of gangliosides?

Gangliosides are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body tissues and fluids, but they are particularly abundant in the brain and in the nervous system. They participate in the maintenance and repair of neuronal cells22, memory formation23 and synaptic transmission24.

How many gangliosides are in the brain?

Total mass and specific ganglioside composition vary significantly from tissue to tissue and among different cell types. The human brain contains 10- to 30-fold more gangliosides than any other tissue or organ in the body (Figure 2; Svennerholm, 1980).

What is the difference between GM1 and GM2?

GM1 gangliosidosis has both central nervous system and systemic findings; while, GM2 gangliosidosis is restricted primarily to the central nervous system. Both disorders have autosomal recessive modes of inheritance and a continuum of clinical presentations from a severe infantile form to a milder, chronic adult form.

What does ganglioside mean?

Listen to pronunciation. (GANG-glee-oh-side) A complex molecule that contains both lipids (fats) and carbohydrates (sugars) and is found in the plasma (outer) membrane of many kinds of cells.

What happens when gangliosides build up?

It has been shown that abnormal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neurons leads to cytoplasmic vacuolation and progressive neurodegeneration, resulting in neuronal death, Purkinje cell depletion, and astrogliosis.

What is glycosphingolipids function?

Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) exhibit a variety of functions in cellular differentiation and interaction. Also, they are known to play a role as receptors in pathogen invasion. A less well-explored feature is the role of GSLs in immune cell function which is the subject of this review article.

Are globosides and isoglobosides dispensable in Fabry disease?

We conclude that substrate reduction therapy through inhibition of the synthesis of globosides and isoglobosides represents a valuable therapeutic option for Fabry disease, all the more as globosides and isoglobosides seem to be dispensable. Animals Fabry Disease / genetics Fabry Disease / metabolism

What is the function of globoside in placenta?

The viral receptor, globoside, is present on the villous trophoblast layer of the placenta and its expression may facilitate transcytosis of virus to the fetal circulation. Endothelial placental cells can be productively infected, facilitating the establishment of fetal infection and contributing to placental damage.

What is a globoside made of?

A globoside is a type of glycosphingolipid with more than one sugar as the side chain (or R group) of ceramide. The sugars are usually a combination of N -acetylgalactosamine, D -glucose or D -galactose.

Does globoside bind to erythroid cells?

A wide distribution of globoside may support the capacity of B19V to bind other diverse cell types, but the VP1u receptor is present mainly on erythroid progenitor cells at the intermediate stage of differentiation ( Leisi et al., 2015 ).