What are the epaxial muscles dog?
The three main epaxial muscle systems are, from most medial to lateral, the transversospinalis, longissimus and iliocostalis systems (Evans, 1993; Fig. 1).
Where is the epaxial located?
Epaxial muscles (epi = upon & axial = axis) are muscles located dorsally along the spine. They are innervated by dorsal branches of spinal nerves and function to extend the vertebral column. Generally, epaxial musculature consists of fascicles running from one vertebra to neighboring vertebrae.
What are the epaxial muscles of back?
Epaxial muscles include other (dorsal) muscles associated with the vertebrae, ribs, and base of the skull. In humans, the erector spinae, the transversospinales (including the multifidus, semispinalis and rotatores), the splenius and suboccipital muscles are the only epaxial muscles.
What are the semispinalis muscles?
semispinalis muscle, any of the deep muscles just to either side of the spine that arise from the transverse processes (side projections) of the lower vertebrae and reach upward across several vertebrae to insert at the spines of vertebrae farther up, except for the upper segment (semispinalis capitis), which inserts …
What is longissimus capitis?
Longissimus capitis is the part of the longest muscle of the neck, which serves to rotate the head from side to side and extend the head.
Which muscle group attaches from the transverse process of the vertebra below to the spinous process of the vertebra above?
Rotator longus connects the transverse process of the lower vertebra to the base of the spinous process of the upper vertebra two levels above.
What muscles are in the Transversospinalis group?
Transversospinales muscle group is a deep group of back muscles that lies deep to the Erector Spinae. It consists of 3 major subgroups: semispinalis, multifidus and rotatores.
What divides the muscle into Epaxial and Hypaxial muscle mass?
The axial muscles are the muscles of the body wall. In all vertebrates from the cyclostomes on (i.e. the gnathostomes), the axial muscles are divided into epaxial and hypaxial groups by the horizontal septum.
What is the action of Transversospinalis muscles?
Action. The transversospinalis muscles group share the same action, bilateral contraction extends the spine and unilateral contraction rotates the vertebral column to the opposite side.
What is splenius muscle?
Splenius capitis is a thick, flat muscle at the posterior aspect of the neck arising from the midline and extending superolaterally to the cervical vertebrae and, along with the splenius cervicis, comprise the superficial layer of intrinsic back muscles.