How does polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cause cancer?
Breathing or swallowing large amounts of naphthalene can cause the breakdown of red blood cells. Long-term exposure to low levels of some PAHs have caused cancer in laboratory animals. Benzo(a)pyrene is the most common PAH to cause cancer in animals.
Do aromatic compounds cause cancer?
Excessive exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) often results in lung cancer, a disease with the highest cancer mortality in the United States.
Are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons carcinogenic?
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of widespread environmental carcinogens. Most of our knowledge of their mechanisms of metabolic activation to DNA-binding “ultimate carcinogenic” metabolites has come from analysis of the DNA interaction products formed by these highly reactive intermediates.
How much polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cause cancer?
These new findings suggest that the current threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m3 of benzene soluble matter (which indicates PAH exposure) is unacceptable because, after 40 years of exposure, it involves a relative risk of 1.2-1.4 for lung cancer and 2.2 for bladder cancer.
Why benzene is considered as carcinogenic?
IARC classifies benzene as “carcinogenic to humans,” based on sufficient evidence that benzene causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IARC also notes that benzene exposure has been linked with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
How do PAHs cause cancer?
The primary source of PAHs is from burning carbon-containing compounds.
Why are some aromatic compounds carcinogenic?
Why are most carcinogenic compounds aromatic in nature? It is mostly due to their metabolites. As they generally are electron rich, aromatic compounds readily undergo oxidative metabolism, forming reactive intermediates such as arene epoxides. These are highly electrophilic and alkylate DNA bases, hence introducing errors in genes.
Why are aromatic compounds so stable?
Aromatic compounds have all electrons paired whereas anti aromatic compounds have unpaired electrons which makes them unstable.
Is cyclohexane considered as aromatic?
Since cyclohexene only has a single double bond and no additional electronic groups that might benefit from additional stabilization from a delocalized or resonant configuration, it is not considered to be “aromatic” in the traditional sense of the word.